Kursk information from http://www.museum.navy.ru/kursk-e.htm
MIRROR FOLLOWS BELOW
Attention! This web-page is created by head of computer centre of the Central Naval Museum, Leonid Kharitonov, under own initiative and with using the mass-media information only. Russian Federation Navy [http://old.rian.ru/mo/vmf-00.htm] is not responsible for any information published here.
RUSSIAN SUBMARINE KURSK CATASTROPHE
- SSGN KURSK. Technical description.
- Information about the wreck. Causes and circumstances investigation.
- Information about sub's damages and inspections.
- Rescue operation daily.
- Lifting the Submarine.
- Involved rescue ships. Technical descriptions.
- Hotline for crew relatives
- Information for donors.
- KURSK Complement.
- Information about the wreck. Causes and circumstances investigation.
The cruise nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine of the Project 949A (NATO codename OSCAR-II) K-141 (Kursk) was designed by Rubin Central Design Bureau [http://www.ckb-rubin.com], principal designer I. L. Baranov. She was laid down in 1992 at Sevmashpredpriyatiye [http://www.sevmash.ru] (Severodvinsk), launched in 1994 and commissioned in 1995. Assigned to 7-th SSGN Division of 1-st Submarine Flotilla of the Northern Fleet. Home base: Vidiayevo settlement in Ura-guba bay.
She was intended for fight against enemy aircraft carrier groups and capable to deliver a massive missile blows from submersible position at long ranges and with a selective target hit.
Displacement: 14700 t surfaced, 24000 t submerged. Length 155 m, beam 18.2 m, draught 9.2 m. Full speed: more then 30 knots. Nuclear main propulsion: two OK-6506 reactors (2x190 MW), two OK-9 turbines (2x49000 hp), 4 turbo generators (4x3200 KW), 2 Diesel generators (190 KW). 2 propellers. Double-hull construction, 10 watertight compartments (I - torpedo, II - Control Room, III - different combat stations, Radio Room, IV - quarters, V and V-bis - different stations, VI - reactor, VII and VIII - turbines, IX - electric motors). Complement: 107 men (including 48 officers). rescue devices: emerging camera for all crew (in outer conning tower), personal dive-suits, emergency&signal buoy. Emergence hatches are situated in I-st and IX-th compartments. Reserve of buoyancy: 30% (4.5 t water).
Weapons: 24 cruise missiles P-700 ("Granit") with conventional or nuclear warheads. 4x650-mm and 2x533-mm torpedo tubes with 28 torpedoes or ASW rockets. "Molniya-M" communicational complex, "Medveditsa-949M" Navigation system, "Tobol" Radar station, "Skat-3" Sonar station, "Antey" combat command system.
Coast: 226'000'000 Russian rubles.
KURSK leaved base on 10.08.2000 at 10:00 to the exercises in Barents sea under a command of the captain 1 rank Gennadiy P. Liachin with 118 men aboard (111 crew's members, 5 officers of 7-th SSGN Division headquarters and 2 designers). Shortly before the crew won a rank of the best submarine crew of Northern fleet. The last message from her was at 08:51 a.m. of 12.08.2000: the submarine had requested permission on educational torpedo launch and received "Dobro" ("Good"). If the torpedoes were educational, the main target of torpedo attack, probably, was Heavy Nuclear Missile Cruiser PETR VELIKIY. Radio message of the results of torpedo launch had to appear at 23:00.
According to information of NORSAR (Norwegian seismic array) [http://www.norsar.no/pressreleases/barentssea/pressrelease.html] service, there were two explosions detected in approximately point 69o38'N 37o19'E on August 12, 2000, morning. First explosion was at 11:29:34 (Moscow time) and had magnitude of 1.5 on the Richter scale (corresponding about 100 kg of explosives), and second -- at 11:31:48 (3.5 numbers). The similar data are obtained by seismic stations of Canada and Alaska. Also, two American submarines (USS MEMPHIS and USS TOLEDO) and one British submarine (HMS SPLENDID) shadowed on the exercises, registered two underwater explosions. One Russian submarine and Óruiser PETR VELIKIY detected these explosions too. Besides, Minister of Defence of Russian Federation said, that the Russian submarine fixed as well the third explosion at 11:44. Moreover the American sub detected the nosie during the interval between two explosions. They recognized it as ballast tanks blowing or increasing of propeller speed. Exercises were shadowed by intelligence ships USS LOYAL (U.S.A.) and MARJATA (Norway) too.
According to information received from miscellaneous sources, SSGN KURSK either returned to base or executed educational torpedo launching at the moment of disaster. The submarine wrecked in a point 69o40'N 37o35'E and lied on oozy&sand ground on depth of 108 m with heel 25 degrees on port side and down 5-7 degrees by the bow. As times goes by, the submarine became covered more and more by slurry. Her heel increased for some time but stop now. The reactor is in the suppressed state. Temperature of water on depth of 100 m - 3-4 degrees of Celsius, on a surface - 7-8 degrees.
KURSK tragedy caused a huge resonance in the world. In the evening 14 of August and morining 15 of August, Canada, France, German, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United States of America and other countries suggested their assistance. Since August 17, the conciliatory commission is working in Bruxelles to solve problems of technical compliance and other organizational questions.
The Governmental commission under the chairmanship of vice-premier Ilya Klebanov was created on August 14 for investigation of causes and circumstances of the wreck. "Right" groups in State Duma insisted on organizing the independed parliamentary investigation, but according to results of voting of September 15, it was decided only to make a request to President for inscribing the parliamentarians in Governmental Commission.
There are many versions were discussed, including fabulous:
- Collision with unknown surface or submersible ship (this is main version);
- Explosion of the weapons and/or batteries or gas mixture in 1-st compartment in result of internal (fire) cause;
- Blowing-up the mine (modern or World War II times);
- Collision with own target, which resulted the torpedo explosion (1st "blast");
- Combat torpedo or ASW missile hit during the exercises (own or launched by other ship);
- Flooding through non-dense closed bow torpedo tubes after the exercises or because of torpedo sticking in torpedo tube;
- Mass poisoning of crew by the sharply evolved chlorine;
- "Avalanche failure of engineering" owing to educing of oxygen;
- Error in ship's control caused to her striking against a ground at high speed.
- Explosion during trial a "secret torpedo" or other newest Russian weapon.
- Mass diseasing of crew by a decompression sickness at the moment of transition from "whale jump" to emergency diving. In result the submarine went out of control, was stuck against the seabed, there was weapons explosion later.
- Hit by "secret, latest" weapon of NATO,
- Intervention of UFO, devil, God (directly) and so on.
The fact, that the boat had rather high parameters of vitality and that the crew was not able to use one of the many rescue or communication devices, testifies, that the damages of KURSK are very significant, and evolution of emergency situation was very fast.
The first meeting of the Governmental commission was held on August 17 in the evening. At the same time the official version of disaster was declared. After more precise definition of August 19 and 20 it looks in the following way. The Commission is considering 3 reasons:
- The first cause of tragedy was strong "dynamic external impact" corresponding with "first event" at 11:29. Probably it was the collision either with foreign submarine (by displacement not less than 10'000 and moved on speed about 10 kn.), or with large surface ship, perhaps ice-breaker or dry cargo ship with ice strengthening of the hull (displacement no less than 150'000 t). Most likely version is the collision with foreign submarine. Owing to large and fast entry of water in bow compartments, the submarine was banged against seabed with a trim difference on a high speed. It has resulted in detonation of weapons in I-st compartment ("second event" at 11:31). At such development of an emergency situation, it is possible to expect, that the crew of most of compartments (except 2-3 stern) has perished during first minutes of disaster. Besides, during TV-interview of August 21, Russian Minister of Defence, announced three pieces of information (without any documentary proofs): 1) about 200 m near KURSK bow are detected foreign matters, presumably, fragments of conning tower of foreign submarine (Norwegian divers declared that they, at least, did not see anything like it, as well as scientists of AKADEMIK KELDYSH). 2) In the morning of August 13 on the seabed near KURSK was detected one more object of similar dimensions. 3) The buoys of foreign colouring, green and white, were spotted also (but they were not found later). According to Ilya Klebanov and deputy Head of Northern Shipping Route Administration A. Ushakov, there was no civil vessels in exercises area.
- Or it was blasting on the old mine of Second World War period.
- Or "extraordinary event in Ist compartment.
Foreign experts, American, English, Norwegian, basically, adhere to the version of explosion in 1-st compartment. Probably, they consider, there was a detonation of ASW rocket during the launching from torpedo tube: at first a propellant, then - warhead had blown up. The tests of upgraded VA-111 ("Shkval") torpedo with a rocket propulsion are supposed to conduct on the submarine. It explains the presence onboard of two experts of "Dagdizel" military plant. The aforesaid modernization is supposed to be replacement of hard fuel on cheaper, but explosion-dangerous liquid one. The version is founded on the analysis of audio signals obtained USS MEMPHIS and the NORSAR Service. Besides the pieces of information on the upgraded torpedo trials are infiltrating from high officers' circles of Northern Fleet, and also from the "Sevmashpredpriyatiye" workers. The version is rejected categorically by the "Dagdizel" director and Governmental commission, however their proofs were not presented to wide public. The official comment concerning presence of the civil experts: overseeing on working of new accumulator battery in usual torpedo.
On August 18, USS MEMPHIS came to Bergens (Norway). At that day American Embassy arranged a photo-session at the Haakonsvern Naval base for journalists including Russian. The sub was not damaged.
On August 24, Russian Main Office of Military Prosecutor instituted proceedings against the culprits of collision according to clause 263.3 of Criminal Code ("violation of safety traffic regulations on railway, air or water lines, entailed, on carelessness, death of two or more persons"). Guilty are threatened from 4 till 10 years imprisonment. It is supposed to use space snapshots of Russian Ballistic Missile Forces for ascertaining the vessel collided with the submarine. All ships had been to that region were inspected.
For the first days of disaster there were no data concerning the state of affairs on board, but that in stern compartments there were survived men, giving the distress signals, sending information about gradual flooding and request on oxygen supply. Communication with them was lost on August 15. It was not known the resources of electric power, oxygen, compressed air in the first time after the accident. It was not known, what ship devices send out of operation, what were speed and order of flooding of compartments. In opinion of Northern Fleet Headquarters (which had been told on August 19 only), bow compartments (at least 4-5) were flooded immediately, and in stern compartments water leaked either through depressurized stern-tube glands, or defective bulkheads. It resulted that the air bubbles with high pressure were arisen in compartments.
As a result of outboard investigation conducted by deep submergence vehicles on August 14-15, the considerable damages in 1-st and 2-nd bow compartments was revealed (hole, hull crack, some inner items around). Conning tower and emerging camera are damaged too, and also one cover of missile trunk was torn off. Characteristic damages of conning tower, bended telescopic devices and hole with edges, concave inside. The further researches went slowly, as all efforts were directed on saving of crew. Observations in night August 16/17 brought proofs, that the Submarine wrecked after the collision: characteristic damages of conning tower, bended telescopic devices and hole with edges, concave inside.
The investigations of August 20 have shown, that to this time all compartments are flooded, the people can remain only in enclosures or air bubbles. The air lock in IX-th a compartment flooded, and the hatch is damaged. Bow compartments are strongly destroyed, and all submarine hull --- distorted.
Onboard temperature decreased slowly and by August 16-17, came to 8-10 degrees of Celsius. Only V - VIII compartments were exceptions: they cooled down more slowly because of nuclear reactor afterheat (deadened reactor, having remained without refrigeration, raises temperature in a compartment till 60-70 degrees for the first time).
There were no nuclear weapons onboard. Meterings of a radiation in an air lock of IX compartment, conducted at 12:30 on August 21, have shown, that it is absolutely normal. At the present day MARS hydrographic survey ship remains at tragedy place for permanent radiation inspection. Also, Norwegian helicopter takes a samples of water here daily. Radiation is normal. The radiation control is conducted by Kurchatov Institute Russian Research Centre [http://www.kiae.ru]. The special scientific expedition of September 21-22 took samples of water close to submarine's hull, but did not discovered the radiation beyond background. In the near future the dosimeters will be mounted on the submarine hull around reactor compartment.
On September 8, DSRV AS-34 from MIKHAIL RUDNITSKIY made a number of divings to KURSK again. Main purpose was setting the buoys and radioactivity level measuring.
On September 14, the Norwegian Northern Fleet got the results from lab-tests of gas samples taken in IX-th compartment and done by the Norwegian company NUI. It is already clear that nobody could live in the gas: the oxygen were too low and carbonmonoxid on lethal level. It was more carbondioxid than people can make, which supports the theory of fire and/or explosion.
Deep research vehicles MIR-1 and MIR-2 are carrying out the investigation of KURSK since September 25. They have conveyed by research ship of Academy of Science of Russia AKADEMIK MSTISLAV KELDYSH. A lot of debris were lifted up, but there were no any fragments of foreign submarine conning tower among them, stated Igor' Spasskiy.
Being worried on account of explosions, the Northern Fleet Headquarters send at 17:30 the radio message to KURSK: "Report your co-ordinates and operations". After determined reply time had elapsed, at 23:30 the Fleet Emergency alarm was declared and the search forces were directed immediately to area of submarine's alleged occurrence. Two Il-38 searching aircraft (commanders -- lieutenant colonels Dergunov and Dovzhenko) detected the oil spot and, according to untested data, also emergency buoys and foreign submarine running at 5-knots speed. Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs informed Norwegian authorities on fact of accident with the nuclear-powered submarine in Barents sea. Late at night of August 12 the rescue ship (deep submergence vehicles carrier) MIKHAIL RUDNITSKIY arrived in this region. She leaved Severomorsk at 20:00 and carried two Project 1855 (PRIZ) deep submergence rescue vehicles (DSRV). It was decided to salvage peoples first of all. It was supposed to do it by docking DSRV on emergency hatch in IX-th compartment, because two other hatches in I-st and III-rd compartments are inaccessible for crew.
On August 13 at 4:36 sonar station of Cruiser PETR VELIKIY found out anomaly at the seabed, which at 19:30 was authenticated as K-141. At 7:00 Minister of Defense Igor' D. Sergeyev reported to President Vladimir V. Putin on the fact of emergency, but did not recommend him to arrive on a crash scene. A salvage operation deployed in the meantime. Admiral Viacheslav A. Popov, Commander of the Northern Fleet, preside the operation from the board of his flagship, cruiser PETR VELIKIY. From 15 up to 22 vessels and about 3000 sailors of the Northern Fleet were involved in the rescue operation in total. The Northern Fleet aviation was support rescue operation actively. The group of Rubin Bureau engineers (including Project 949A principal designer) arrived in Severomorsk in Wednesday morning.
Besides at night of August 12/13 and in the morning of August 13 the submarine of Main Intelligence Department investigated the KURSK bow. At 18:00 and 18:30 were carried out the first two descents of a diving bell from ALTAY rescue ship. At 19:30 Project 1855 DSRV from MIKHAIL RUDNITSKIY discovered by sight the submarine laid on seabed. The weak knockings "SOS. Water" were heard from aboard. But this signals were "decoded" only by August 18, and, according to statements of authorities (including Ilya Klebanov) might be "the noise of any mechanizm". Sea conditions were calm -- 1 Beaufort number, wind force -- up to 5 m/sec, altidude of waves -- up to 0,5 m.
On August 14 Ship crane PK-7500 with one BESTER-type DSRV appeared there. The diving bells were descended to the submarine. There were some pieces of information that salvage tug NIKOLAY CHIKER participated in early rescue operation; its deep water TV equipment could be used for obtaining the first pictures of wrecked Submarine. The first message "there were malfunctions on the submarine, therefore she was compelled to lay on a seabed in region of Northern Fleet exercises in Barents sea" was made by Navy's Press Centre at 10:45. Sea conditions was relatively calm by day -- 1-2 numbers.
N.B.: there were not any messages on rescue operation till 16:00 August 15, in mass-media. In particular, for all day of August 14 was not a word in press about salvage operation, Navy Press Centre said nothing concerning it too. In the first half of August 15 there were messages only about preparation to "active phase" of rescue operation. Moreover, the descents of DSRVs on August 15 and 16 were named "first", "second" etc. by Navy Press Centre. The course of salvage operation on August 13, 14 and morning 15 was scored for sound only by evening of August 21, mainly, in TV-interview of Minister of Defence I. Sergeyev. Especially, it was only Sergeyev who said about descents of the diving-bell at 18:00 and 18:30 on August 13, about investigation the huge damages of the submarine by deep submergence vehicle that day, about descents of "Prizes" of August 14, about his decision, that 80% of crew have lost. Being expressed in later time, all this information can be called into question.
At night on August 15 submarine's bow was inspected for the first time by deep submergence vehicle: there were obtained data about damages in bow. It was decided and reported to mass-media that two fore compartments had been flooded. However, in the morning the rescue operation was temporary stopped due to 4-5 number storm began at night. Wind force totaled 20 m/s, altitude of waves -- 4 m. Only at 20:00 when the weather had ceased up to 2-3 numbers (8 m/s wind) the attempts of diving and docking of DSRV were started by two PRIZ-type vehicles. First diving lasted from 20:00 till 5:30 (four unsuccessful docking attempts). This day the survived crew members stopped the sending the distress signals. This very day the Commander-in-Chief Vladimir N. Kuroyedov informed, that the oxygen reserves aboard will sufficient to middle of day of August 18.
On August 16 at 8:00 BESTER-type DSRV was joined them. These DSRVs tried to dock on emergency hatch, but all attempts were unsuccessful because of strong variable stream, submarine's heel and absence of co-ordination of rescuers' activity from the submarine crew. In the morning sea condition was 2-3 numbers, wind 10 m/s, but in afternoon storm became stronger (4 numbers, wind 15 m/s, waves altitude 2-3 m). Therefore one of the DSRVs was damaged due to hit against the hull of vessel. But after the night repairs it returned to operation on August 17. The situation is valued as "heavy, critical" (President V. Putin). In the evening of this day V. Putin, as Supreme Commander-in-Chief, gave an order for Navy Commander-in-Chief to accept foreign assistance.
As a reserve version of rescuing it was supposed to lift KURSK by using pontoons and band belts. However simultaneous usage of DSRVs and pontoons was inexpedient: two activities would only mutually hamper each other. The third idea was to connect to special holes cables with electric power and oxygen, but in that case good weather is necessary.
On August 17 at 12:00 Norwegian vessel NORMAND PIONEER with the English DSRV LR5 leaved Trondheim port (Norway). The rest ship, SEAWAY EAGLE, with deep skin-divers (employees of Stolt Offshore Company [http://www.stoltoffshore.com], Norway) aboard, also of started motion in disaster area. There were pieces of information, that Norwegian plant in Kirkeness received an order to manufacture the transferring device between English DSRV and Russian emergency hatch.
Since August 17, fourth DSRV involved in the operation. Attempts of 4 DSRV dockings on the emergency hatch of IX-th compartment was prolonged. However they foiled over heavy stream (till 2.5 knots), low underwater visibility and submarine's heel. In the evening the sea condition was 2-3 number, 10 m/s wind. Rescue ships MIKHAIL RUDNITSKIY, ALTAY, Project 563 (SB-365 or SB-523) and Project 712 (SB-406) seagoing tugs, Project 141 hulk, deep submergence station AS-35 (?), radiation control vessel (probably, GS-526), BCGN PETR VELIKIY, DDG ADMIRAL KHARLAMOV, fleet oiler, KARAGANDA auxiliary ship are operating in rescue area now. Heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser ADMIRAL FLOTA SOVETSKOGO SOYUZA KUZNETSOV was in 15 miles from rescue area and was ready to render the helicopters immediately. The situation aboard the submarine is valued as "nearly catastrophic" (Prime-minister M. Kasyanov), however Navy Press Centre noticed, that people aboard will be able to live till 23-25 of August, if they spare forces and oxygen.
During numerous divings of August 18-19 it was possible for 15 times to be docked to an emergency hatch, however all attempts to pump out water and to open the hatch was unsuccessful. It was connected with (as it was supposed then): 1) after striking against seabed there was a deformation of hatch coaming mirror, because of what it is impossible to dock hermetically; 2) or someone inside tried unsuccessfully to escape by air lock, and it became depressurized and was flooded. Rescuers hoped to decide this problem with the help of the divers. On August 18 the altitude of waves has decreased 1-1,5 m, the wind abates up to 5 m/s, and on August 19 calm sea established.
On August 18 the situation was valued as "supercritical" (Governmental commission chairman I. Klebanov). For the first time published data about the leaking in compartments and about the rising high-pressure air there, crossed the calculations published earlier, that air will suffice till 23-25 August. Under the message of Chief of Northern Fleet Headquarters of 17:00 August 19, "a border of crew surviving crossed on August 18-19-20". "The zero information from the submarine means, that the critical state of seamen has set in". Wide public learned about flooding not only 2-4 fore, but all compartments only from this statement. Nevertheless it was decided, that attempts to penetrate into KURSK will be prolonged with former intensity. It is necessary to salvage miracle survived or to supply perished everything, that is required to the man and Christian.
On Saturday, at 19:30 the vessel NORMAND PIONEER with the English vehicle LR5 and team of 21 rescuers, engineers and doctors arrived. The chief of team -- A. Hoskins. Also SEAWAY EAGLE with 4 Norwegian and 8 Scottish deep skin-divers aboard came at 23:00. Royal Navy officer, óommodore David Russel, co-ordinated the activity of British rescuers, and Norwegian Vice Admiral Einar Skorgen --- Norwegian rescuers. In the Ministry of Defense of Great Britain was sure, that docking of LR5 with our submarine is technically possible. During the night activity of Russian DSRVs was prolonged, and both Norwegian ships was carrying out preparations for diving works.
On August 20 about 9:00, Norwegian TV camera was lowered to submarine. The data obtained confirm the fact of strong destruction of I-st and II-nd compartments, and also deformation of all hull. Also they have confirmed the fact of significant deformation and damage (crack) of the emergency hatch coaming plate in IX-th compartment. At 13:15 three Norwegian divers were descended in diving-bell. The knock reconnaissance showed, that, probably, all boat was flooded, and living people could remain only in enclosures and air bubbles in VII - VIII compartments. The air lock is filled by water: probably, there is a man trying to leave out unsuccessfully.
Navy's Commander-in-Chief, Fleet Admiral V. N. Kuroyedov, and Governmental commission chairman I. O. Klebanov came to rescue area in the morning for general co-ordination the actions. Later English and Norwegian rescuers charged Russian military men with deliberate impeding in their attempts to reach KURSK as soon as possible, and also with a misinformation. "From time to time, -- Vice Admiral E. Skorgen noticed for Norlanddsposten newspaper, -- The information given to the Norwegian side, was so inauthentic, that it threatened the safety of divers". In particular, strong underwater streams was not appeared, as well as poor visibility. Only after threat of termination of salvage operation Admiral V. Popov personally interfered and adjusted a problem, that two divers on the helicopter have departed on another Project 949A submarine for learning the hatch and air lock. The member of the British rescue team Paddy Heron, arriving on a place of catastrophe together with mini-sub LR5, stated, that it was repugnant to him to hear the Russian statements about that, they have done the utmost for saving KURSK. As he said, all command was severely disappointed by that Russian have discharged them from rescue operation.
That day the weather was a little spoiled, in the evening the state of the sea was 1 number. The Norwegian&Scottish divers divided into 4 crews of 3 men; each crew will work for 6 hours. During afternoon all efforts were directed on opening of the upper door of the hatch (it was decided to break it by ship's crane). During this night, till 6:00, two Norwegian divers were trained on the Russian base in Vidiayevo on similar air lock and compartment.
On Monday, August 21 at 7:45 Norwegian rescuer opened upper door of emergency hatch. There were not people in air lock. About 13:00 o'clock lower hatch of air lock also was opened. IX-th and, probably, VIII-th compartments are flooded. In IX-th compartment the body of died seaman was reported to be found (but later this information was refuted). Admirals V. Popov (Commander of Northern Fleet) and E. Skorgen (Commander of Armed Forces of Northern Norway) came to a conclusion, that all K-141 crew has perished and that the Norwegian rescuers had fulfilled their mission. At 21:00 the Military Council of Northern Fleet officially recognized fact of loss of all crew and has expressed the condolence to relatives. August 23 is declared as a day of national mourning.
NORMAND PIONEER and SEAWAY EAGLE after the onboard mourning ceremony leaved the place of tragedy at 14:00 August 22, as they did everything, that could. The hatch in IX compartment was battened down. On the tragedy area remained 1-2 warships of Northern Fleet for guarding, as well as hydrographic survey ship MARS.
On 21-22 of August Igor' Sergeyev, Minister of Defence, Vladimir Kuroyedov, Navy Commander-in-Chief and Viacheslav Popov, Commander of Northern Fleet sent in their resignation. President V. Putin did not accept its and noticed, that do not mean to discharge anybody without exact establishment of the fact of guilt.
Russian Federation officially applied to Norway for help in recovering of sailor's bodies and received the consent in principle. Main Russian designer and co-ordinator of these works is Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering [http://www.ckb-rubin.com] (Saint Petersburg). The main foreign partner was expected to be Norwegian Stolt Offshore [http://www.stoltoffshore.com] Company, but finally the contract was signed with Norwegian branch of American firm Halliburton AS [http://www.halliburton.com/esg/esg_dw/esg_dw.asp] (Tanangar). Russian side values the contract at $5-8'000'000. Bodies of perished seamen will be extracted through eight special apertures (1.5 x 0.7 m), that will be made in hull. All works will be carried out by 6 foreign and 15 Russian divers (after their training on SSGN ORIOL on October 3-7). Team of Russian divers is called "328-th expeditionary detachment of Department of searching, emergency and rescue works". Commanding officer -- captain 1st rank Vasiliy Velichko. On October 9 the lifting platform REGALIA with whole divers' team aboard has left Bergens to disaster place. Only Russians will work inside the submarine. The works will start about October 19, and will last till November 10. Apertures in submarine's hull will be closen up on completion the operation.
Only 25-35 bodies is expected to will be recovered. 78 crew relatives made a request to president for stopping the body-recovering operation. It will be correct to lift the bodies up togetther with the submarine, -- they believe.
For the first time idea of lifting (by using pontoons and band belts) was appeared as a reserve way of crew rescuing. However simultaneous usage of DSRVs and pontoons was assured to be inexpedient: two activities would only mutually hamper each other.
On August 17, the Rubin Central Designe Bureau [http://www.ckb-rubin.com] has initiated the development of the SSGN KURSK lifting project, which wil be carried out by forces of 3-4 countries. The negotiations are carried on with Belgian firm Scaldis [http://www.marine-salvage.com/companypages/scaldis.htm]. The Russian side is expected to be represented by some research institutes of Saint Petersburg and Moscow, Afrikantov Design&Experiment Bureau (Nizhny Novgorod), Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (Saratov), Academician Khlopin Radium Institute Inc. (Saint Petersburg), Malachite Maritime Engineering Bureau (Saint Petersburg), Prometey Central Research Institute of constructional materials (Saint Petersburg), Sevmash Inc. (Severodvinsk). Project's estimated value is $100'000'000. General contract will be signed in October 2000.
Final conclusion on the lifting methods was determined by Commission on August 29, but was not presented for wide public. It is known only, that the submarine will be lifted not on a surface, but will be towed to Murmansk dock. Probably this operation will carry out foreign ship with special claws. I-st compartment will be cleaned of silt, cut and lifted up separately. The winter season with strong storms in Barents sea starts at the end of September, therefore KURSK will be lifted about 2nd half of summer of 2001.
- Rescue ship MIKHAIL RUDNITSKIY (Project 05360). Designed by Baltsudoproekt Central Design Bureau, principal designer -- P. S. Voznyy. Built in Vyborg
Shipyard in 1980. The ship is intended for carrying two deep submergence
vehicles in one of the three variants: Project 1837K or 1855 DSRV, Project 1839 deep submergence working vehicle or POISK-2 deep submergence
reconnaissance vehicle. There are one 200-metres diving-bell and MTK-2000 deep
TV devices. Load lifters: two 50-tonn jibs and one 20-tonn jib. DSVs diving
and rising is possible under 3-numbers sea conditions (or 5-numbers with using
active stabilizers). Displacement: 7960 t. Length: 130.3 m. Beam: 17.3 m.
Draught: 5.9 m. Full speed 15.8 knots. Diesel engines, 6100 hp. 1 propeller.
Complement: 96 crew's members and 40 passengers. Endurance: 20 days. "MGA-21"
There is once more vessel of this type, GERMAN TITOV at Northern Fleet. She is under repairing now.
- DNV SEAWAY EAGLE. Company: Stolt Shipping Corp. (Norway). Port of registry:
Monrovia (Liberia). Built in 1997 at Boelwert Vlaanderen NV, Temse (Norway). Capacities:
16 cable reels 6" - 10" dia. (10 - 4 km), Diving saturation 12 men / 300 m depth.
ROV: 1xWork class
2000 m, 1xObservation class. Tonnages: GT 9556, MDWT 6216. Length (o.a.): 138.4 m. Breadh
19.5 m. Draught: 6.5 m. Engines: 14538 Bhp. Speed: 13.5 kn. Communication:
Satkom B 363-659-610,
- Rescue ship ALTAY (Project 1452). Designed by Baltsudoproekt Central Design Bureau, principal designers A. G. Dadayenko and P. S. Voznyy. Built in
Leningrad at Admiralty shipyard in 1980-th. Is intended for deduction afloat
the wrecking surface ships, for extinguishing a fires, refloating the ships
from banks, peoples catching from the water. There are 60-tonn towing winch,
two (200 m and 60 m) diving stations, diving-bell, load lifters (one 12-tonn
and two 3-tonn jibs). Displacement: 4040 t. Length: 92.8 m. Full speed: 18.7 knots. Diesel engines, 9000 hp. Complement: 71 crew's members and 16 passengers. Endurance: 60 days.
- Project 141 hulk. Series of 9 units was built in Rostok (West Germany)
from 1986 to 1991. Ships was intended to short-term basing of DSRVs, as well
as loading, transferring and mounting the roads' equipment. Max. depth of
working: 300 m. There are: one 100-tonn crane, one 100-tonn winch, one 10-tonn crane, one 150-tonn rising device. Displacement: 5250 t. Length: 111,6 m. Full
speed: 13.7 kn. Diesel&electric engines, 3000 hp. Complement: 44.
Endurance: 45 days.
- Oceangoing Tug NIKOLAY CHIKER (Project 5757). Built in Rauma
(Finland) in 1989. Ship is intended for independent towing of surface vessels
with displacement up to 200'000 t. Also she is able to provide limited rescued
actions. There are towing devices (150-tonn hook and 250-tonn winch), load
lifters (two 8-tonn and one 3-tonn cranes), fire-fighting devices, deep TV
station, helicopter platform. Displacement: 7542 t. Length: 98 m. Full speed
18 knots. Diesel engines, 2x12240 hp. Complement: 51 crew's member and 20 passengers. Endurance: 45 days.
- Project 712 Seagoing tugs. Series of 4 units was built at Rauma Repola
Shipyard (Finland). Ship is intended for independent towing of surface vessels
with displacement up to 40'000 t. Also she is able to provide limited rescued
actions. There are: rescue devices (60-tonn winch, 90-tonn hook),
fire-fighting devices, 60 m diving station, load lifters (one 5-tonn crane).
Displacement: 2980 t. Length: 69.2 m. Full speed: 16.1 kn. Diesel engines,
7800 hp. Complement: 43. Endurance: 30 days.
- Project 563 Seagoing tugs. The series of 13 ships was built in Finland by
Uusikaupungen Telakka from 1977 to 1983. Ship is intended for independent
towing of surface vessels with displacement up to 10'000 t. Also she is able
to provide limited rescued actions. There are 40-tonn towing winch, one
10-tonn jib, one 3-tonn jib, fire-fighting devices, one 40 m diving station.
Displacement: 2200 t. Length: 63.5 m. Full speed: 14 kn. Diesel engines, 35000 hp. Complement: 46. Endurance: 40 days.
- Deep submergence station AS-35 (Project 1851). Built in Admiralty
Shipyard in 1994. There is pressure chamber for divers. Displacement submerged
1000 t. Length: 40 m. Nuclear-powered main propulsion.
- Deep submergence rescue vehicles Project 1855 (PRIZ). Designed by Lazurit Central Design Bureau, principal designer: Ye. Krylov. 4 vehicles were built in Gorkiy from 1986 to 1989. They are intended for
rescuing the crews of wrecked submarines by "dry" method. Displacement 55 cub.m.
Length: 13.5 m. Beam: 3.8 m. Full speed: 3.3 kn (horizontal),
0.5 kn (vertical). Range: 21 miles at 2.3 kn speed. Diving depth
Complement: 4 crew's members and 20 salvaged. Endurance submerged
These vehicles can carry every vessel with 60-tonn lifter.
- Deep submergence rescue vehicles Project 18270 (BESTER). Designed by
Lazurit Central Design Bureau, principal designer: Ye. Krylov. 2
vehicles were built in Gorkiy in 1994. They are intended for
rescuing the crews of wrecked submarines (with heel up to 45 degrees) by "dry"
method. Displacement: 39 cub.m. Length: 12 m. Beam: 3.2 m.
Full speed 3 kn (horizontal), 0.65 kn (vertical). Range: 11.4 miles
at 2.5 kn speed. Diving depth: 750 m. Complement: 3 crew's members and
16-18 salvaged. Endurance submerged 4 hours. These vehicles can
carry every vessel with 50-tonn lifter or by aircraft.
- There are no pieces of information on using Project 940 rescue submarine (NATO codename INDIA). She was designed specially for rescuing crews of wrecked submarines at any state of the sea and weather conditions. There is one such type submarine, BS-257, in the Northern Fleet. She is also capable to carry two DSRVs. It was found out, that this submarine left to Saint-Petersburg on repairs for some time before, where it was accepted the solution to utilize her due to lack of finances.
- In Moscow (Ministry of Defence): (095) 293-89-95.
- In Moscow (Navy Headquarters): (095) 204-22-78. Fax: (095) 204-26-49.
- In Severodvinsk (Northern Fleet Headquarters): (81537) 779-78, (8152) 486-214.
- In Vidiayevo: (825533) 25-17.
(All phone connections are free in St. Petersburg).
Relatives arrived in Murmansk and Severomorsk are moving and accommodating in Vidiayevo settlement. The Government of Russia granted 1'500'000 rubles to seamen families for covering the consumptions on moving to Murmansk and others... The government commission under chairmanship vice-premier Valentina Matvienko was organized for rendering assistance to families of the perished seamen. According to her, every family will receive 720'000 rubles in addition to legal 120 salaries per family and 25 salaries per each family member, as well as flat in any region of Russia they wanted.
On August 22 in the evening the president V. Putin met the members of families of the perished seamen in Vidiayevo. Governments of Byelorussia and Ukraine also allocate funds to relatives. 23 of August declared as the day of national mourning in Byelorussia too. Bulgarian authorities are ready to accommodate any amount of seamen' children in Tsarevo resort free of charge.
On August 24 passenger ship KLAVDIYA YELANSKAYA came to place of K-141 wreck with crew relatives.
Phone for donors in St. Petersburg (Submariners' Club [firstname.lastname@example.org], captain 1 rank Igor Kurdin): (812) 323-24-67.
Bank accounts for donors:
- in Russian rubles:
Central Bank of Russian Federation, Nakhimovskoye Field Administration, BIK 044780002
Customer: Financial&Economic Board of the Northern Fleet, INN 5192160332
Details of payment: Charity donation for the relatives of perished in the sumbarine "KURSK".
- Central Bank of Russian Federation, Main Board for Murmansk Region, State Pay-Cash Centre, BIK 044705001
Customer: Office Management Department of Governor of Murmansk Region, INN 5191502294
Details of payment: Charity donation for the relatives of perished in the sumbarine "KURSK".
Corresponding account N' 3010181500000000060 in OPERU GB Bank of Russia in Moscow, BIK 044525060
Account N' 40703810959855030500.
Customer: Submarine KURSK Foundation,
- in foreign currecies:
Account with Institution: SABRRUMMM1
Beneficiary's Account N' 40603840541020300033
Beneficiary's Customer: Office Management Department of Governor of Murmansk Region, INN 5191502294
Details of payment: Charity donation for the relatives of perished in the sumbarine "KURSK".
- The Chase Manhattan Bank, London
Account of Vneshekonombank, Moscow, Russia N' 23916401
Customer: Submarine KURSK Foundation, Account N' 40703840259855030500.
- Account in Germany:
Spendenkonto „KURSK“ bei der Sparkasse Vorpommern KONTO:1414 BLZ:150 505 00
(for more information see http://u-461.de).
Moreover, for EVERY family bank accounts are opened. More information all donors can receive by phones: (095) 158-69-04, 943-91-35.
All donations will be transferred to families of crew members.
(Ministry of Defence official list)
"For courage and heroism, evinced during performance of sailor's duty" KURSK commanding officer Captain 1 rank G. P. Liachin was conferred the rank of Hero of Russian Federation (post mortem) on August 26. All 117 crew's member were awarder the Courage Order and inscribed forever in lists of 7-th Division, 1-st Submarine Flotilla of the Northern Fleet.
1. Senior Midshipman Abdulkadyr M. Il'darov - leading torpedoman (Dagestan Rep.)
2. Midshipman Aleksey V. Zubov - hydroacoustic party technician (Ukraine)
3. Seaman Ivan N. Nefedkov - torpedo section commander (Sverdlovsk Reg.)
4. Seaman Maksim N. Borzhov - torpedoman (Vladimir Reg.)
5. Seaman Aleksey V. Shul'gin - bilge artificer (Arkhangelsk Reg.)
6. Senior Lieutenant Arnold Yu. Borisov - attached from OAO "Dagdizel" Plant (Dagestan Rep.)
7. Mamed I. Gadzhiyev - attached from OAO "Dagdizel" Plant (Dagestan Rep.)
7-th Submarine Division Headquarters:
1. Captain 1 rank Vladimir T. Bagriantsev - chief of 7-th Submarine Division Staff (Crimea Rep.)
2. Captain 2 rank Yuriy T. Shepetnov - missile flag officer (Crimea Rep.)
3. Captain 2 rank Viktor M. Belogun' - deputy chief of Division Engineering Service (Ukraine)
4. Captain 2 rank Vasiliy S. Isayenko - assistant chief of Division Engineering Service (Crimea Rep.)
5. Captain 3 rank Marat I. Baygarin - acting torpedo flag officer (Saint Petersburg)
6. Captain 1 rank Gennadiy P. Liachin - commanding officer (Volgograd Reg.)
7. Captain 2 rank Sergey V. Dudko - first officer (Byelorussia)
8. Captain 2 rank Aleksandr A. Shubin - upbringing officer (Crimea Rep.)
9. Captain-Lieutenant Maksim A. Safonov - navigating officer (Moscow Reg.)
10. Senior Lieutenant Sergey N. Tylik - electric navigation party commander (Murmansk Reg.)
11. Senior Lieutenant Vadim Ya Bubniv - electric navigation party engineer (Ulyanovsk Reg.)
12. Captain 3 rank Andrey B. Silogava - missile officer (Crimea Rep.)
13. Captain-Lieutenant Aleksey V. Shevchuk - commander of control party of missile department (Murmansk Reg.)
14. Senior Lieutenant Andrey V. Panarin - engineer of control party of missile department (Leningrad Reg.)
15. Senior Lieutenant Boris V. Geletin - commander of launch party of missile department (Murmansk Reg.)
16. Senior Leiutenant Sergey V. Uzkiy - commander of target designation party of missile department (Arkhangelsk Reg.)
17. Captain 2 rank Yuriy B. Sablin - engineering officer (Crimea Rep.)
18. Captain 3 rank Andrey V. Miliutin - damage-control assistant (Saint Petersburg)
19. Captain-Lieutenant Sergey S. Kokurin - commander of bilge party of damage-control division (Voronezh Reg.)
20. Midshipman Vladimir V. Khivuk - mustering technician (Kursk Reg.)
21. Captain 3 rank Aleksandr Ye. Sadkov - control officer (Amur Reg.)
22. Captain-Lieutenant Mikhail O. Rodionov - computer party commander (Crimea Rep.)
23. Senior Lieutenant Sergey N. Yerahtin - computer party engineer (Murmansk Reg.)
24. Midshipman Yakov V. Samovarov - chief of sanitary section (Arkhangelsk Reg.)
25. Senior Midshipman Aleksandr V. Ruzliov - ship's boatswain (Murmansk Reg.)
26. Midshipman Konstantin V. Kozyrev - electric navigation party technician (Murmansk Reg.)
27. Senior Midshipman Vladimir V. Fesak - electric navigation party technician, missile department (Ukraine)
28. Midshipman Andrey N. Polianskiy electric navigation party technician, torpedo department (Krasnodar Reg.)
29. Midshipman Segrey A. Kislinskiy - technician of launch party of missile department (Kostroma Reg.)
30. Midshipman Sergey V. Griaznyh - computer party technician (Arkhangelsk Reg.)
31. Seaman Dmitriy S. Mirtov - steersman-signaller (Komi Rep.)
32. Petty Officer 2 class /under contract/ Dmitriy A. Leonov - steersmen-signallers section commander (Moscow Reg.)
33. Senior Lieutenant Maksim A. Rvanin - engineering party engineer (Arkhangelsk Reg.)
34. Seaman Andrey N. Driuchenko - electrician (Arkhangelsk Reg.)
35. Senior Lieutenant Aleksey A. Ivanov-Pavlov - torpedo officer (Ukraine)
36. Midshipman Viktor A. Paramonenko - hydroacoustic party technician (Ukraine)
1. Captain-Lieutenant Dmitriy A. Repnikov - assistant commanding officer (Crimea Rep.)
2. Captain 3 rank Andrey A. Rudakov - signal officer (Moscow Reg.)
3. Captain-Lieutenant Sergey G. Fiterer - space communication party commander (Kaliningrad Reg.)
4. Captain-Lieutenant Oleg I. Nosikovskiy - classified automatic communication party commander (Kaliningrad Reg.)
5. Captain-Lieutenant Vitaliy M. Solorev - commander of equipment party of damage-control division (Bryansk Reg.)
6. Captain-Lieutenant Sergey N. Loginov - hydroacoustic party commander (Ukraine)
7. Captain-Lieutenant Andrey V. Koroviakov - hydroacoustic party engineer, navigator's department (Saint Petersburg)
8. Captain-Lieutenant Aleksey V. Korobkov - hydroacoustic party engineer, missile department (Murmansk Reg.)
9. Captain-Lieutenant Aleksandr V. Gudkov - radio intelligence party commander (Kaliningrad Reg.)
10. Captain 3 rank Viacheslav A. Bezsokirnyy - chief of chemical service (Ukraine)
11. Senior Midshipman Igor' V. Yerasov - crypto operator (Voronezh Reg.)
12. Senior Midshipman Vladimir V. Svechkariov - telegraphy operator of classified automatic communication (Nizhny Novgorod Reg.)
13. Senior Midshipman Sergey A. Kalinin - telegraphy operator of classified automatic communication, missile department (Ukraine)
14. Senior Midshipman Igor' V. Fedorichev - control department technician (Tula Reg.)
15. Midshipman Maksim I. Vishniakov - target designation party technician (Ukraine)
16. Midshipman Segrey S. Chernyshov - space communication party technician (Crimea Rep.)
17. Midshipman Mikhail A. Belov - hydroacoustic party technician (Nizhny Novgorod Reg.)
18. Midshipman Pavel V. Tavolzhanskiy - hydroacoustic party technician (Belgorod Reg.)
19. Senior Midshipman Sergey B. Vlasov - radio intelligence party technician (Murmansk Reg.)
20. Midshipman Sergey A. Rychkov - chemical service technician (Uzbekistan)
21. Petty Officer 2 class /under contract/ Yuriy A. Annenkov - missile department mechanician (Kursk Reg.)
22. Seaman Dmitriy A. Kotkov - missile department mechanician (Vologda Reg.)
23. Dubbing Seaman Nikolay V. Pavlov - missile department mechanician (Voronezh Reg.)
24. Seaman Ruslan V. Trianichev - bilge artificer (Vologda Reg.)
1. Senior Lieutenant Denis S. Kirichenko - damage-control engineer (Ulyanovsk Reg.)
2. Captain of Medical service Aleksey B. Stankevich - medical officer (Ukraine, Saint Petersburg)
3. Midshipman Vitaliy F. Romaniuk - surgeon's assistant (Crimea Rep.)
4. Senior Midshipman Vasiliy V. Kichkiruk - head of sanitary team (Ukraine)
5. Senior Midshipman Anatoliy N. Beliayev - ship's cook (instructor) (Ryazan Reg.)
6. Chief ship's Petty Officer /under contract/ Salovat V. Yasapov - cook (instructor) (Bashkortostan Rep.)
7. Seaman Sergey A. Vitchenko - cook (Leningrad Reg.)
8. Seaman Oleg V. Yevdokimov - cook (Kursk Reg.)
9. Seaman Dmitry V. Starosel'tsev - bilge seaman (Kursk Reg.)
10. Seaman Aleksandr V. Halepo - turbine stand-by operator (Komi Rep.)
11. Seaman Aleksey Yu. Kolomeytsev - turbine stand-by operator (Komi Rep.)
12. Seaman Igor' V. Loginov - turbine stand-by operator (Komi Rep.)
1. Captain 3 rank Dmitriy B. Murachiov - party commander of main propulsion division (Crimea Rep.)
2. Captain-Lieutenant Denis S. Pshenichnikov - party commander of control division, navigator's department (Crimea Rep.)
3. Captain-Lieutenant Sergey N. Liubushkin - party commander of control division, missile department (Nizhny Novgorod Reg.)
4. Captain 3 rank Ilya V. Shchavinskiy - engineering division commander (Saint Petersburg)
5. Captain-Lieutenant Aleksandr Ye. Vasilyev - commander of equipment party of main propulsion division (Crimea Rep.)
6. Captain 3 rank Nikolay A. Beloziorov - engineering party commander (Voronezh Reg.)
7. Senior Midshipman Ivan I. Tsymbal - technician-electrician (Ukraine)
8. Midshipman Oleg V. Troyan - chemical service technician (Azerbaijan)
9. Chief Petty Officer /under contract/ Aleksandr V. Neustroyev - electrician (Tomsk Reg.)
10. Seaman Aleksey A. Larionov - bilge seaman (Komi Rep.)
11. Midshipman Vladimir G. Shablatov - technician-electrician (Mari El Rep.)
1. Senior Lieutenant Vitaliy Ye. Kuznetsov - engineering party engineer, navigator's department (Novgorod Reg.)
2. Senior Midshipman Nail' Kh. Khafizov - leading instructor of chemical service (Bashkortostan Rep.)
3. Senior Midshipman Yevgeniy Yu. Gorbunov - diesel operator (Nizhny Novgorod reg.)
4. Midshipman Valeriy A. Baybarin - head of bilge team of damage-control division (Chelyabinsk Reg.)
1. Captain-Lieutenant Rashid R. Ariapov - main propulsion assistant (Uzbekistan)
2. Midshipman Aleksey G. Balanov - head of bilge team of main propulsion division (Chuvash Rep.)
3. Senior Lieutenant Aleksey V. Mitiayev - engineer of equipment party of main propulsion division (Saint Petersburg)
4. Chief Petty Officer /under contract/ Viacheslav V. Maykagashev - bilge specialist (Khakass Rep.)
5. Seaman Aleksey A. Korkin - bilge specialist (Arkhangelsk Reg.)
1. Captain-Lieutenant Dmitriy R. Kolesnikov - commander of technical party of main propulsion division (Saint Petersburg)
2. Midshipman Fanis M. Ishmuradov - technical party technician (Bashkortostan Rep.)
3. Petty Officer 2 class /under contract/ Vladimir S. Sadovoy - turbine section commander (Nizhny Novgorod Reg.)
4. Seaman Roman V. Kubikov - turbine operator (Kursk Reg.)
5. Seaman Aleksey N. Nekrasov - turbine operator (Kursk Reg.)
6. Petty Officer 1 class /under contract/ Reshid R. Zubaydullin - electrician (Ulyanovsk Reg.)
7. Seaman Ilya S. Naliotov - turbine operator (Vologda Reg.)
8. Petty Officer 2 class /under contract/ Roman V. Anikiyev - turbine operator (Murmansk Reg.)
9. Senior Midshipman Vladimir A. Kozadiorov - technician & turbine operator (Lipetsk Reg.)
1. Captain-Lieutenant Sergey V. Sadilenko - party engineer of control division, navigator's department (Ukraine)
2. Senior Midshipman Viktor V. Kuznetsov - turbine operator mate (Kursk Reg.)
3. Chief ship's Petty Officer /under contract/ Robert A. Gesler - turbine section commander (Bashkortostan Rep.)
4. Senior Midshipman Andrey M. Borisov - technician of equipment party of main propulsion division (Ryazan Rep.)
5. Seaman Roman V. Martynov - turbine operator (Komi Rep.)
6. Seaman Viktor Yu. Sidiuhin - turbine operator (Komi Rep.)
7. Seaman Yuriy A. Borisov - turbine operator (Komi Rep.)
1. Senior Lieutenant Aleksandr V. Brazhkin - party engineer of control division, missile department (Crimea Rep.)
2. Midshipman Vasiliy E. Ivanov - head of electricians' team (Mari El Rep.)
3. Midshipman Mikhail A. Bochkov - technician of bilge party of damage-control division (Crimea Rep.).